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There was a direct necessity to find new sources of employment. Factories and
Cities were the answer to this call.
4. Whether the mission of factories consisted in reduction of wages or in
Labour productivity increase?
As has noted almost 70 years ago S.D.Chepmen "Cotton
Manufacture ", S. J. Chapman, to distribution of factories promoted as organizational, so
And technology factors. From the point of view of founders of first factories,
Perfection of the organisation of work conducted to reduction of costs on work without
Corresponding falling of manufacture. Comparing job at factory hardly
Home-workers in the textile industry of Britain, Marglin has allocated the following
Advantages of the factory organisation to owners: (1) it was possible to reduce
Larceny of materials and finished goods; (2) not having qualifications of the woman
And children could carry out highly specialised operations at factory for the smaller
Payment, than it should to pay to the highly skilled man working
Manually; (3) threat of dismissal for a prorumble it was possible to force the factory
Workers to regular job within full working week, that not
It was possible to reach with the home-workers, got used to work only a part of week
"What Do Bosses Do? Origins, Marglin and Functions of Hierarchy".
These benefits got not for nothing. To reduce costs to a payment,
The first manufacturers had to build factory buildings, to buy machine tools and
To employ supervisors for the workers. As the amortisation
Deductions and percent on the credit for capital investments it was necessary to pay as in
Good, and to bad times, factories represented it financial risk,
Than manufacture by means of home-workers.
In manufacture of fabrics reduction of labour costs at transition to the factory
The manufacture organisations (taking into account costs on acquisition) was?
Insignificant or at all negative as the long history testifies
Gradual replacement of manual weaving looms by machine tools with a power drive,
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